Adsorption dryers are always constructed with two pressure vessels that are filled with adsorbent that catches humidity from the compressed air.
One vessel is active and dries pressure air, the second vessel is always in the regime of regeneration and adsorbent is dried so that it is ready for active activity. As for the method of regeneration, the dryers are divided into dryers with cold regeneration, with warm regeneration and with regeneration using compression heat.
The principle of the function of dryer with regeneration using compression heat is similar to the dryer with heat regeneration.
This dryer type is suitable in combination with oil-free screw compressor or turbo-compressor, where the temperature of compressed air for compressors is higher. Again, the dryer is in construction with two vessels with desiccant.
Compressors do not have after-coolers and hot air enters directly into the dryer. Hot compressed air passes through regenerated vessel and due to its high temperature, it regenerates the desiccant. For the vessels regenerated by passage, compressed air enters into the after-cooler, where water is condensed and exhausted out of the dryer. Compressed air after cooling enters into the second vessel, where it is dried to requested pressure dew point. This principle of drying is operationally the most economic because no electricity and compressed air are consumed.
Adsorption dryers are used if the value of pressure dew point is requested under the 0 °C limit. Standard value of pressure dew point is -40 °C, however, compressed air can be dried to the level of -70 °C. Adsorption dryer with cold regeneration is equipped with two vessels with desiccant (material that absorbs humidity). One vessel always dries pressure air to the requested pressure dew point and the second with desiccant is regenerated. Regeneration is based on the principle of desiccant drying by regenerated pressure air. Common value of consumption of pressure air for regeneration is 14 % of the input volume.
This principle of drying does not consume any electricity for regeneration. Increase of efficiency is achieved by controlling pressure dew point when the control system measures current pressure dew point at the output and based on its value, it regulates the intervals of drying of the desiccant. The consumption of regeneration air can be reduced to the value of c. 7 % by such control.
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